新加坡武器進口,躍居全球前五國~軍事倫理(二)軍隊文化

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新加坡武器進口,躍居全球前五國~軍事倫理(二)軍隊文化

發表  世清教官 于 周五 3月 30, 2012 9:21 am

Military spending in South-East Asia
Shopping spree
Countries are buying lots of weapons, but does it count as an arms race?


Mar 24th 2012 JAKARTA AND SINGAPORE from the print edition

THE tiny island-state of Singapore, home to just over 5m people, has a well-deserved reputation as a quiet, clean-cut hub for banking, lawyering and golf. Yet beyond the fairways it bristles with weapons.

According to a report from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Singapore is now the fifth-largest arms importer in the world, bested only by some obvious behemoths—China, India and Pakistan—plus South Korea. Singapore accounts for 4% of the world’s total spending on arms imports. Its defence spending per head beats every country bar America, Israel and Kuwait. This year $9.7 billion, or 24% of the national budget, will go on defence.
These are striking figures, but then Singapore has been one of the bigger spenders in the region since its rancorous split from Malaysia in 1965. The difference now is that almost every country in South-East Asia has embarked on a similar build-up, making it one of the fastest-growing regions for defence spending in the world. Military analysts at IHS Jane’s say that South-East Asian countries together increased defence spending by 13.5% last year, to $24.5 billion. The figure is projected to rise to $40 billion by 2016. According to SIPRI, arms deliveries to Malaysia jumped eightfold in 2005-09, compared with the previous five years. Indonesia’s spending grew by 84% in that period.

It is part of a wider Asian phenomenon. For the first time, in modern history at least, Asia’s military spending is poised to overtake Europe’s, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, a think-tank in London. China is doubling its defence budget every five years and India has just announced a 17% rise in spending this year, to about $40 billion.

Until recently domestic insurgencies have amply justified some South-East Asian countries’ defence spending. Yet for decades there have been no interstate conflicts. An existential angst remains in Singapore over Malaysia to the north and Indonesia, its big neighbour to the south. Still, it is hard to imagine any of the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) locking horns, apart perhaps from Cambodia and Thailand, who lob the occasional artillery shell at each other over a disputed temple on the border.

Mostly, though, countries seem to be exploiting economic success to update their hardware while the going is good. Defence spending slowed sharply after the Asian financial crisis in 1997-98, when many planes and ships were already old. Now many countries are enjoying rapid economic growth, of up to 6% a year, and robust budgets. This is not, says Bill Edgar of IHS Jane’s, a “strategic” arms race. Rather, he says, it is all about modernisation.

Take the regional giant, Indonesia. The Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 not only devastated communities, it also laid bare the shortcomings of the armed forces, which proved to be ill-equipped and demoralised. As American and Australian troops poured off aircraft carriers and other ships into the ravaged province of Aceh to bring aid and search for victims, Indonesian troops were reduced to spectators. The newly elected president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, took the humiliation personally. A former general, Mr Yudhoyono has since made modernising Indonesia’s armed forces a priority.



Indonesia is spending $8 billion this year on defence—still rather modest for a country of 240m, but up sharply from $2.6 billion in 2006. Much is going on new hardware and spare parts. The country has acquired Russian and American warplanes, including F-16 fighters, vessels for its navy, and spare parts for its C-130 transport planes. In January Indonesia signed a $1.1 billion deal for three German-made diesel-electric submarines, and lawmakers are debating whether to buy 100 Leopard tanks from the Netherlands. Mr Yudhoyono also wants to improve the lot of soldiers, with higher salaries and benefits.

Domestic political calculations are another factor behind the region’s defence splurge. Terence Lee at the National University of Singapore argues that in countries where the armed forces have meddled in politics, civilian politicians use larger defence budgets to buy political compliance from the military—Thailand is a case in point. Singapore, on the other hand, has a different motivation. It is the only country in the region building its own high-tech arms industry. Singapore has long sold weapons to other developing countries, but has recently been winning its first large orders from Western armies too. ST Engineering, the only South-East Asian firm in SIPRI’s top 100 defence manufacturers, has sold over 100 Bronco (or Warthog) armoured troop carriers to the British, for use in Afghanistan.

For all that, strategic concerns do count for something. For example, the sea lanes leading to the Strait of Malacca are the lifeblood of Singapore’s prosperity. And over the past decade, some may have worried that America was distracted by war elsewhere. So the growth of a Chinese blue-water navy has implications.

Strategic concerns also loom large for any country with a territorial claim to the disputed South China Sea (see article), where China’s assertive stance has provoked a surge of spending by, for instance, Vietnam. The country recently ordered six Kilo-class submarines from Russia. Vietnam is also buying seven or so new frigates and corvettes over the next decade. In the Philippines the government of President Benigno Aquino almost doubled the defence budget last year, to $2.4 billion.

Even with new submarines and planes, Vietnam and the Philippines are still no match for Asia’s new superpower, should it come to war. But it might make China think twice, or even thrice, before trying anything, and buy time before America—presumably—comes to the rescue.


資料來源:http://www.economist.com
特別感謝:兩岸和平研究中心 副執行長 張蜀誠博士 推荐!
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回復: 新加坡武器進口,躍居全球前五國~軍事倫理(二)軍隊文化

發表  世清教官 于 周四 4月 05, 2012 9:08 am

美中啟動亞太軍備競賽

2012-04-05 01:03 旺報 【曾復生】

瑞典智庫日前發布研究報告表示,亞太國家2012年軍費支出已經超過歐洲國家總合;英國《金融時報》更進一步指出,近期中共在努力打造海軍,同時美國國防部也正將更多軍艦轉移到亞太地區,太平洋逐漸成為「競技場」;此外,美國總統歐巴馬的新國防戰略強調,美國將加強在亞太地區的軍力,而且不受削減預算的影響。

超強國對崛起大國
在此之前,日本政府宣布將採購42架F-35A匿蹤戰機,作為日本下一代主力戰機,南韓亦可能跟進採購60架同型的戰機;同時,日本野田首相決定放寬「武器出口三原則」,並刪除太空研發須以「和平」為目的的規定;此外,日本將與英國達成共同開發新武器的協議,包括艦艇發動機等先進技術。

至於大陸方面的擴軍動作,近5年來,共軍新增強的軍事能量包括:
(一)因應黃海、東海、台海,以及南海地區戰略環境特殊性,積極發展制敵聯合作戰能量、機動性高的多管火箭攻擊能力、壓制性高的岸置長距離防空飛彈、岸置攻艦飛彈封鎖能力、電子作戰與干擾能力,以及持久戰的後勤支援補給能量等。
(二)積極克服核潛艦與指揮管制中心,溝通順暢與安全的技術瓶頸,發揮核動力潛艦及柴電潛艦能量,以有效嚇阻美軍勢力介入台海、東海,以及南海地區。

同時,共軍在自主的北斗衛星導航定位系統建構完成後,將可以聯合反艦導彈等系統,以及核動力潛艦,組成戰略性嚇阻能量。

另根據俄羅斯的消息指出,中共已經和俄羅斯簽署採購合約,將引進48架總值40億美元的俄製蘇-35戰鬥機。

雖然大陸的軍力到2020年間,還不太可能成為勢力擴及全球的軍事大國,但是,以現行軍費持續二位數增長的發展趨勢推斷,大陸的軍力將可以在10年間,改變亞太地區的軍力平衡狀態。

美國國務卿希拉蕊於日前表示,展望未來對大陸關係,一個古老的問題已浮出水面,那就是一個公認的大國與崛起的大國相遇時會發生什麼狀況?

亞太國家投入競賽
美國國會研究處於2012年2月中旬,發布一份題為《中國海軍現代化對美國海軍能量發展的意涵》報告,呼應國防部長潘尼塔的觀點指出,美中在亞太地區軍力消長變化,將會成為影響亞太國家每日決策的重要變數;同時,美國是否能夠繼續保持在亞太地區的軍力優勢,會牽動亞太國家政局演變和外交決策方向,進而影響到美國在亞太地區的關鍵利益。

隨著大陸與美國在亞太地區綜合國力的對比,出現消長變化的新形勢。亞太地區的公共領域,包括公海、空中航線、太空領域,以及網路和電磁頻譜等,都將會出現美中兩強競合的格局。

目前大陸方面積極發展的軍事能量,已經讓美國及亞太主要的國家意識到,亞太地區公共領域的自由使用權與控制權,將會出現權力重組的競爭。

美中兩國在亞太地區政治目標的衝突,將是兩國啟動軍備競賽的關鍵因素。目前,美國智庫界普遍認為,歐巴馬強調建構精巧強軍力的國防戰略,主要在嚇阻中共與伊朗,因此,美國將發展更靈活的軍隊,強化在亞太地區的作戰能量,並保持波斯灣、印度洋,及南海地區運輸航通的暢通。

換言之,以美國為首的亞太主要國家,包括日本、南韓、澳洲、印度,以及部份東協國家等,已展開新一輪的軍備競賽計畫,從海、空、太空,以及網路和電磁頻譜等領域,著手應對來自「中國崛起」的挑戰。


(作者為國家政策研究基金會國安組顧問)
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回復: 新加坡武器進口,躍居全球前五國~軍事倫理(二)軍隊文化

發表   于 周三 4月 18, 2012 12:11 am

面對各國的軍事武器提升 或許我國也應投注一些資金於武器的改良 畢竟例如戰機等關係到機組人員的生命安全 每每看到新聞中爆出軍機墜落的新聞總令人難過 期許錢能花在刀口上 使高危險的機長工作能有更多保障 也能增進國軍戰力
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注冊日期 : 2012-01-13

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